Wenja Grammar: Prepositions

While English places its prepositions before the noun or pronoun it modifies (“in Wenja”, “before Roshani”), Wenja places their prepositions after (Winja-ha “in/with Wenja”, Rushani parshay “before Roshani”). (While technically postpositions, we’ll refer to them as prepositions in our discussions.)

The basic prepositions of Wenja are as follows:
  • -s ‘of, concerning, about; possession’
  • -i (after consonant) / -y (after vowel) ‘to, for; possession’
  • -su ‘in, on, at’
  • -ha ‘with, by (agent of passive)’
  • -bi ‘from, by, than (comparison)’
  • -m ‘towards, against, into, onto, during’
When using personal pronouns as the object of the preposition, use the possessive form. The plural form will make use of the “long” form.
  • mi-yi ‘to, for me; mine’
  • ti-yi  ‘to, for you’
  •  si-su ‘on him/her/it’
  •  arsi-ha ‘with them’
  •  ti-bi ‘from you’
  •  masi-m ‘towards, into, onto us’ 

Here are some examples:

  1. Shash miyi.                                          The rock (is) for me / mine.
  2. Shash mibi chawda.                            The rock hides from me.
  3. Sim gwamam.                                      I’m coming for (lit. towards) him.
  4. Ti-Winja mim gwama!                         Your Wenja come to me!
  5. Tim gwamam.                                      I’m coming for you.
  6. Taniha hadamas.                                 We’re eating with y’all.
  7. Arsh-mashtarha haymas.                    We’re going with their mother.
  8. Tiha haymas.                                       We’re going with you.
  9. Ti-mashtarha haymas.                         We’re going with your mother.
  10. Ti-jarshna mashtarha haymas.           We’re going with your old mother.
  11. Ti-mashtaris mashtarha haymas.        We’re going with your mom’s mom.
  12. Ti-mashtarbi, shash dafmas.               We got a rock from your mother.

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