There are six resonants in PIE & Wenja. Each is present in English, with one crucial difference. The < r > of both PIE & Wenja is trilled, not approximant, as we here in the stereotypical “American” r. You can hear the correct < r > in a whole slew of commercials for Ruffles potato chips. (Note too that the PIE < r > was likely dental, not alveolar)
- < r > (voiced alveolar trill)
PIE *prō ‘forward’ > Hitt. p(a)rā ‘forth’, Ved. prá, Av. fra-, Gk. pró, Lat. prō ‘in front of’, Eng. fro, OCS pro- ‘through’, Lith. prã ‘past’, Wenja pra ‘ahead, forth’
- < l > (voiced alveolar lateral approximant)
PIE *lewk- ‘light’ > Hitt. lukke- ‘kindle’, Ved. rócate ‘shines’, Av. raocaiieti ‘lights up’, Gk. leukós ‘bright’, Lat. lūc- ‘light’, OIr. luchair ‘a shining’, Arm. loys ‘light’, Eng. light, TA/B luk ‘to shine’, OCS luča ‘beam of light’, Wenja lawka- ‘bright’, lawkari ‘firefly’, lawkisna ‘glowing’, lawkas ‘light, color’, lawkaya ‘shine, light (transitive); kindle’, lawkwal ‘white wolf’
- < m > (voiced bilabial nasal)
PIE *men- ‘think’ > Ved. mánas- ‘mind’, Av. manah- ‘mind’, Gk. ménos ‘mental energy’, Lat. ment- ‘mind’, OIr. do-moiniur ‘I think’, Arm. i-manam ‘I understand’, Eng. mind, OCS mĭnjǫ ‘I believe’, Lith. menù ‘I think’, Wenja manas ‘plan, strategy’, manaya ‘warn’, mani ‘think; rage, be angry’
- < n > (voiced alveolar nasal)
PIE *ne ‘not’ > Hitt. na-tta ‘not’, Ved. ná, Av. na, Lat. ne-, OIr. ní, OEng. ne, OCS ne, Lith. nè, Wenja nay ‘no’, na ‘not’, nakwayda ‘never’, etc.
- < w > (voiced labiovelar glide)
PIE *weǵh– ‘to lead, convey (in a vehicle)’ > HLuv. waza- ‘drive’, Ved. váhati ‘leads, brings’, Av. vazaiti ‘leads, brings’, Gk. ekhetō ‘let him convey’, Lat. uehere ‘to convey’, OIr. fén ‘wagon’ (< *weǵh-no-), OCS vezǫ ‘I convey’, Middle Dutch wagen ‘wagon’ ( > English), Wenja waja ‘drive; ride (a bear, sabertooth)’
- < y > (voiced palatal glide)
PIE *yugom ‘a yoke’ > Hitt. iukan ([jugan]), Ved. yugám, Gk. zugón, Lat. iugum, Welsh iau, Lith. jùngas (with secondary -n-), Eng. yoke, Wenja yawga ‘to yoke, join’
- < r̥ >
PIE *mr̥tos ‘dead’ > Ved. mr̥tá-, Av. mǝrǝta-, Gk. brotós (< *mrotós) ‘mortal’, Lat. Morta ‘goddess of death’, Arm. mard ‘man’, Eng. murd-er, Old Russ. mĭrtvŭ ‘dead’, Lith. mirtìs ‘death’, Wenja marti ‘death’, marwa ‘dead’
- < l̥ >
PIE *wl̥kwos ‘wolf’ > Hitt. walkuwa- ‘monster’, Ved. vr̥ kás, Av. vǝhrka-, OCS vliku, Lith. vilkas, Wenja wal(kwa) ‘wolf(pack)’
- < m̥ >
PIE *deḱm̥ ‘10’ > Ved. daśa, Av. dasa, Gk. déka, Lat. decem, OCS desȩ-tĭ, Lith. dẽšimt, Wenja dacham ’10’
- < n̥ >
PIE *n̥- ‘un-‘ > Ved. a(n)-, Gk. a(n)-, Lat. in-, OIr. an-, Eng. un-, Wenja an-fraji ‘distracted’, an-sharta ‘unharmed’, an-shurdwa ‘wrong, incorrect’
- < u >
PIE *nu ‘now’ > Greek nun, Latin nunc, Sanskrit nu, Wenja nu ‘now’
- < i >
PIE *ni ‘down’ > Sanskrit ni ‘down’, ni-taram ‘downward’, Greek nei-othen, Old Church Slavonic ni-zŭ ‘low down’, English ne-ther, Wenja ni ‘down’
2 thoughts on “Wenja’s Roots: Dwani (Sounds), Part 3”
I'm interested in your method of creating a Proto PiE language in Wenja.
When I consider the arguable onomatopoeic nature of words like:
PIE *mr̥tos ‘dead’ > the m and voiceless trill could be similar to a repeated quiet mourning sound. The -os is an ending vowel that requires the least oral muscles to pronounce (as opposed to i, or a).
PIE *wl̥kwos ‘wolf’ > The onomatopeic nature of this word is evident in that the wl̥k is the sound of a wolf cry. Again the -os is an ending vowel which requires the least facial muscles to pronounce.
I'm curious as to how your reconstructions into Wenja:
Wenja marti 'death', marwa 'dead'
Wenja wal(kwa) 'wolf(pack)'
Are a regression. At first sight they seem to me to be an evolution of PIE by a few thousand years rather than a regression.
I'm genuinely curious as I love your work immensely on Wenja! Questions like these spring to mind when delving into the linguistics for me.
Interesting ideas here! You may be right about PIE *mer- being originally onomatopoetic, but something that could prove problematic is that the root originally meant "to disappear" (we find this meaning in Anatolian) and not "to die". It's likely that the meaning "to die" was initially euphemistic, just as we find in English "to pass away". You could be right about *wlkw- sounding like a wolf howl, but it's impossible to prove.
As for the *-o-s ending, this is one of the most common suffixes in PIE to form nouns. (It's called the thematic suffix) It'd be difficult to make any claims as to the origin of it, though to be sure many within the field have tried.
As for the specific Wenja reconstructions, marti, and marwa are regular reflexes from PIE mrti- & mrwo- (with syllabic "r"s). Note that positing Wenja as proto-PIE, we assume that the syllabic "r"s in actual PIE (and Izila) are *later* developments. In general, ablaut is absent in Wenja, though we do cheat here and there to avoid homophony.
Walkwa (the expected Wenja form of PIE *wlkwo) is an instance of word clipping that we had to do in the game to ensure that important words weren't overlong. I decided to keep walkwa to mean "wolfpack".
U Winja war-warha!
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