- nu: affirmative “indeed, yes, now”
- na: negative “no, not”
- ku: interrogative question marker
- u: imperative command marker
- may: negative imperative negative command, “don’t!”
- tu: then (temporal sequence) “so, then”
- ma: adversative “but”
- ba: exclamative! “whoa! hey!”
- ha: final (in order to) purpose marker; “so that”
- aysh: subjunctive / optative “could, should, would”
Kaydam. I hit (him/her/it).
Nu kaydam. Yes, I hit (him/her/it). / Now, I hit (him/her/it)/
Na kaydam. I didn’t hit (him/her/it).
Aysh kaydam. I should (could, would) hit (him/her/it).
Ba kaydam! Whoa, I hit (him/her/it)!
Tu kaydam… And then I hit (him/her/it)…
Winja marwa. Wenja (are) dead.
Na Winja marwa. Wenja (are) not dead.
Sushalhayn gwanam. I kill the sun-walker.
Nu sushalhayn gwanam. Now I kill the sun-walker.
Aysh sushalhayn gwanam. I should / could / might kill the sun-walker.
Ta Udam. You (are) Udam.
Na-ta Udam You (are) not Udam.
Ku-ta Udam? (Are) you Udam?
- u: imperative commands
- ku: interrogative questions